Endoscopic management of pancreatic fluid collections
Pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) are common complications of acute pancreatitis. Asymptomatic collections do not require drainage while symptomatic or infected collections should be drained. Drainage can be performed surgically, percutaneously, or endoscopically. Recent studies have shown that endoscopic drainage of PFCs is equivalent or superior to surgical or percutaneous drainage, with less complications. Advances in tools and technology coupled with increasing expertise in management of PFCs has resulted in minimally invasive endoscopic drainage, by endosonographic guidance, being the preferred approach. New larger diameter lumen apposing metal stents (LAMS) have simplified the process of drainage. LAMS have also made performing direct endoscopic necrosectomy for walled-off necrosis (WON) easier. Technique, duration, frequency, and tools used for direct endoscopic necrosectomy are variable. Performing PFC drainage requires adequate and fundamental knowledge of diagnostic and basic therapeutic EUS.