Laparoscopic liver resection—education and training

Giammauro Berardi, Kazuharu Igarashi, Go Wakabayashi


Since the first wedge resection reported in 1991 (1), laparoscopic liver surgery has had a slow but stepwise development, gradually rising interest among the hepatobiliary community. Case series, comparative studies and pooled results from pioneering centres started soon to report the safety and reproducibility of laparoscopic liver resections (LLRs), eventually speculating advantages over the standard open approach (2-5).