Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are commonest causes of chronic liver disease. In spite of different risk factor, they share common spectrum of fatty liver/steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, these two diseases are different on many aspects. With the progress made over the last decade, Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology feels the need for reviewing the latest updates and identify unmet needs with future prospects on ALD and NAFLD. It is my privilege to guest edit this focused issue, with contributions on various aspects by experts in the respective field.