Associated liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy: a review
Outcomes of liver resection have improved with advances in surgical techniques, improvements in critical care and expansion of resectability criteria. However, morbidity and mortality following liver resection continue to plague surgeons. Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) due to inadequate future liver remnant (FLR) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following liver resection. Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a novel two-staged procedure described in 2012, which aims to induce rapid hypertrophy of the FLR unlike conventional two-stage hepatectomy, which require a longer time for FLR hypertrophy. Careful patient selection and modifications in surgical technique has improved morbidity and mortality rates in ALPPS. Colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) confers the best outcomes post-ALPPS. Patients <60 years old and low-grade fibrosis with underlying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are also eligible for ALPPS. Evidence for other types of cancers is less promising. Current studies, though limited, demonstrate that ALPPS has comparable oncological outcomes with conventional two-stage hepatectomy. Modifications such as partial-ALPPS and mini-ALPPS have shown improved morbidity and mortality compared to classic ALPPS. ALPPS may be superior to conventional two-stage hepatectomy in carefully selected groups of patients and has a promising outlook in liver surgery.