The prevalence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors in Sudanese individuals with gallstones: a cross sectional survey

Ahmed Omer Almobarak, Ayat Jervase, Aza Abdelrahman Fadl, Nur Ibrahim Ali Garelnabi, Suzan Al Hakem, Tarig Mohamed Hussein, Amro Ahmad Aljack Ahmad, Inas Salah El-den Ahmed, Safaa Badi, Mohamed H. Ahmed

Abstract

Background: The gallstones are common health problem across the world with huge financial burden on health authorities. Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with risk of gallstones disease (GSD). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes and associated risk factors in Sudanese patients with gallstones.
Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study, enrolled patients with gallstones attending Ibn Sina Specialized Teaching Hospital for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases. A structured questionnaire was applied, anthropometric measures were taken, and blood tested for HbA1c, fasting glucose and lipid profile. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.
Results: A total number of 151 participants were recruited in the study, 71 of them were ultrasound confirmed GSD patients, and the other 80 were controls without GSD over a period of six months. The prevalence of the MetS and diabetes was 30% and 23.9% respectively. Borderline diabetes was 16.9% and overweight and obesity constituted more than half of the sample 59.6%. Using Chi-Square test, a statistically significant association was found between MetS and HDL, TG, LDL level, waist circumference and blood pressure (BP). Absolute predictors and the risk factors for gallstone disease were waist circumference, age, HbA1c and LDL.
Conclusions: The prevalence of MetS and diabetes among gallstone patients was 30% and 23.9% respectively. Absolute predictors and the risk factors for gallstone disease were waist circumference, age, HbA1c and LDL.